The intention of this page is to share our bibliography. This will be updated as we uncover new texts and sources. It is far from complete or comprehensive – but if you know a text that we really should include, then we would be delighted to hear from you.

3 ETIC Reading Lists

A. Theoretical reading (in chronological order)
B. ETIC specific titles (followed by material on other cities)
C. General titles
D. Link to French Language Bibliography

A. Theoretical reading (in chronological order)

Georg Simmel
society consists of an intricate web of multiple relations between individuals who are in constant interaction with one another: “Society is merely the name for a number of individuals, connected by interaction.”
The Metropolis and Mental Life (adapted by D. Weinstein from Kurt Wolff (Trans.) The Sociology of Georg Simmel. New York: Free Press, 1950, pp.409-424) Grossstadt. Vorträge und Aufsätze zur Städteausstellung. (Jahrbuch der Gehe-Stiftung Dresden, hrsg. von Th. Petermann, Band 9, 1903, S. 185-206, Dresden)
The Stranger (From Kurt Wolff (Trans.) The Sociology of Georg Simmel. New York: Free Press, 1950, pp. 402 – 408)
Lewis Mumford, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc, 1961

For American urban theorist Lewis Mumford, human history has generally hinged on two opposing ideas, movement and settlement. While movement brought adventure, settlement brought security, and Mumford argued that cities have served as unique case studies for historians (and sociologists) who wish to examine these ideas in confined spaces. In 1961, he published The City in History, which sought to explicate how urban growth (through technology) has affected human culture over time, and thus, why movement and settlement ultimately define the human experience in cities. Book Contents: Preface Sanctuary, Village, and Stronghold The Crystallization of the City Ancestral Forms and Patterns The Nature of the Ancient City Emergence of the Polis Citizen Versus Ideal City Hellenistic Absolutism and Urbanity Megalopolis into Necropolis Cloister and Community Medieval Urban Housekeeping Medieval Disruptions, Modern Anticipations The Structure of Baroque Power Court, Parade, and Capital Commercial Expansion and Urban Dissolution Paleolithic Paradise: Coketown Suburbia—and Beyond The Myth of Megalopolis Retrospect and Prospect Bibliography Acknowledgements Index

Henri Lefebvre, Writings on Cities, 1995 [first published as Le Droit à la ville, Paris: Anthropos, 1968)

Richard Sennett, The Uses of Disorder, New York: Knopf, 1970
In Uses of Disorder, Richard Sennett shows how an excessively ordered community freezes adults into rigid attitudes that stifle personal growth. He argues that the accepted ideal of order generates patterns of behavior that are stultifying, narrow, and violence-prone. And he proposes a functioning city that can incorporate anarchy, diversity, and creative disorder to bring into being adults who can openly respond to and deal with the challenges of life.

1980s and 1990s
Michel de Certeau, ‘Walking in the City’ in The Practice of Everyday Life, 1984,%20the%20practice%20of%20everyday%20life.pdfMitter, Partha. “The Early British Port Cities of India: Their Planning and Architecture Circa 1640-1757.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (Society of Architectural Historians) 45, no. 2 (June 1986): 95- 114.

B Thakur (1993)

Partha Mitter, Art and Nationalism in Colonial India, 1850-1922: Occidental Orientations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,, 1994).

Dane Keith Kennedy, The Magic Mountain: Hill Stations and the British Raj (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996).

Partha Mitter, “The Early British Port Cities of India: Their Planning and Architecture, Circa 1640-1757,” Journal Of the Society of Architectural Historians 65, no. 2 (1986): 95-114.

Zeynep Çelik, Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations : Algiers under French Rule (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

Zeynep Celik, “New Approaches to The “Non-Western” City,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians vol.58, no. 3 (1999): 374-78.

Contemporary texts, scholarship from 2000

Chandavarkar, R. (2009) History, Culture and the Indian City. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge

Hazareesingh, S. (2007) The colonial city and the challenge of modernity: urban hegemonies and civic contestations in Bombay City, 1900-1925. Orient Longman: Hyderabad

Tambiah, S. J. (1997) Leveling Crowds: EthnoNationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia University of California Press: Berkeley, California

Sujata Patel and Kushal Deb, Urban Studies, New York; OUP, 2009
496 pages; 5-1/2 x 8-1/2;ISBN13: 978-0-19-806252-3ISBN10: 0-19-806252-4

Other Cities, Other Worlds: Urban Imaginaries in a Globalizing Age. Edited by Andreas Huyssen. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2009.

Jyoti Hosagrahar, Indigenous Modernities: Negotiating Architecture and Urbanism (London: Routledge, 2005).

Vikramaditya Prakash and Peter Scriver, Colonial Modernities: Building, Dwelling and Architecture in British India and Ceylon, The Architext Series (London: Routledge, 2007).

Beverley, E. L. (2011) Colonial urbanism and South Asian cities Social History 36, 482-497.

Blom Hansen, T. and Verkaaik, O. (2009) Introduction — Urban Charisma: On Everyday Mythologies in the City Critique of Anthropology 29, 5-26.

Swati Bhattacharya and Jayesh G, Postcolonial global cities: The Indian experience (the bibliography contains many useful references to sources on Kolkata)

Gandy, M. (2004) ‘Rethinking urban metabolism: Water, space and the modern city’ in CITY, Vol. 8, No. 3, December, 363-379

William J. Glover, ” Objects, Models, and Exemplary Works: Educating Sentiment in Colonial India,” The Journal of Asian studies 64, no. 3 (2005): 539-56.

Moriconi-Ebrard F. et Marius-Gnanou K., 2007-08, «Urbanization in India : From megacities to urban villages ». French Institute of Pondicherry, IFP-Media, August 31, 2008

B. ETIC specific titles (Calcutta, Chandigarh and Pondicherry, followed by material on other cities)


Bagchi, K.G. ed., The Bhagirathi-Hooghly Basin (Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1972)

Biswas, Oneil, Calcutta and Calcuttans: From Dihi to Megalopolis (Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1992)

Blechynden, K, Calcutta Past and Present, ed. N. R. Ray (Calcutta: General Printers and Publishers, 1978)

Bompas, C.H., ‘The Work of the Calcutta Improvement Trust’,  Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. 75, No. 3868 (JANUARY 7th, 1927), pp.199-219

Bose, N. K., Calcutta 1964: A Social Survey (Bombay: Lalvani, 1968)

Busteed, H.E., Echoes from Old Calcutta (Calcutta: Thacker, 1908)

Calcutta’s Urban Future: Agonies from the Past and Prospects for the Future (Government of West Bengal, 1991)

Chakrabarti, Prafulla K., The Marginal Men (Calcutta: Naya Udyog, 1999)

Chakraborty, B. and De, S. ‘Maidan: The Open Space in History’, Social Scientist, Vol.38, No.1/2 (Jan-Feb 2010) pp.3-22

Chattopadhyay, Swati, “Blurring Boundaries: The Limits of “White Town” in Colonial Calcutta,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59, no. 2 (2000): 154-79.

———, “‘Goods, Chattels and Sundry Items’: Constructing 19th-Century Anglo-Indian Domestic Life,” Journal of Material Culture 7, no. 3 (2002): 243-71.

———, Representing Calcutta : Modernity, Nationalism, and the Colonial Uncanny, In: Asia’s Great Cities; Asia’s Transformations (London, New York : Routledge, 2005).

Chaudhuri, Sukanta, ed., Calcutta: The Living City, 2 vols (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990)

Choudhuri, Keshab, Calcutta: Story of its Government (Bombay: Orient Longman, 1973)

Cotton, H. E. A., Calcutta Old and New: A Historical and Descriptive Handbook to the City, ed. N. R. Ray (Calcutta: General Printers and Publishers, 1980)

Dasgupta, K. ‘City Divided? Planning and Urban Sprawl in the Eastern Fringes of Calcutta’ in Shaw, A. (eds) Indian Cities in Transition (Chennai: Orient Longman Ltd, 2007)

Datta, Partho, Planning the City: Urbanization and Reform in Calcutta, c. 1800-1940 (Delhi: Tulika, 2012)

Deville, F. (1826) Lettres sur le Bengale, ecrites des bords du Gange Paris: Briere

Ghosh, Siddhartha, Kaler Shahar Kolkata (Calcutta: Ananda Publishers, 1991)

Guha-Thakurta, T. ‘The City in the Archive, Calcutta’s Visual Histories’, Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta

Gupta, Nilanjana, Himani Bannerjee, and Sipra Mukherjee, ed., Calcutta Mosaic: Essays and Interviews on the Minority Communities of Calcutta (London: Anthem Press, 2009)

Gupta, Saibal Kumar, Improving Calcutta: Notes and Essays on Urban Government, ed. Partho Datta (Calcutta: Bibhasa, 2000)

Kolkata 300: Sahitya o Sanskriti Parampara (Government of West Bengal, 1994)

Gupta, R.P ‘Sounds and Street Cries of Calcutta’, India International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 3/4, The Calcutta Psyche (Winter 1990/1991), pp. 209-219

Long, James, Calcutta in the Olden Time: Its Localities and Its People (Calcutta: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, 1974)

Lubell, Harold, Calcutta: Its urban development and employment prospects (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1974)

Mitra, Radharaman, Kalikata-Darpan, 2 vols (Calcutta: Subarnarekha, 1973, 2003)

Mukherjee, N., The Port of Calcutta: A Short History (Calcutta: The Commissioners for the Port of Calcutta, 1968)

Nair, P. T., Calcutta in the Seventeenth Century (Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1986)

——, Calcutta in the Eighteenth Century (Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1984)

——, Calcutta in the Nineteenth Century (Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1989)

——, Calcutta Municipal Corporation at a Glance (Calcutta: Calcutta Municipal Corporation, 1989)

Racine, Jean, ed., Calcutta 1981: The city, its crisis and the debate on urban planning and development (New Delhi: Concept Publishing Co, 1990)

Ray, A. K., A Short History of Calcutta: Town and Suburbs (Calcutta: Rddhi, 1982)

Roy, B., Calcutta: Marshes to Metropolis 1481-1981 (Calcutta: NCE Bengal, 1982)

Sen, Ranjit, A Stagnating City: Calcutta in the Eighteenth Century (Calcutta: Institute of Historical Studies, 2000)

Sinha, Pradip, Calcutta in Urban History (Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1978)

Sinha, Surajit, ed., Cultural Profile of Calcutta (Calcutta, Indian Anthropological Society, 1972)

Sur, Atul, Kolkata: Ek Purnanga Itihas (Calcutta: General Printers and Publishers, 1981)

Xing, Z., ‘The Bowbazar Chinatown’, India International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 3/4, INDIACHINA Neighbours Strangers (WINTER 2009 SPRING 2010), pp. 396-413

Jim Antoniou, ‘Chandigarh: Once the Future City’, The Architectural Review, 1273 (2003), 70-75.S

Eric Lewis Beverley, “Colonial Urbanism and South Asian Cities,” Social History 36, no. 4 (2011): 482-97.

Bandyopadhyay, and Iain Jackson, The Collection, the Ruin and the Theatre: Architecture, Sculpture and Landscape in Nek Chand’s Rock Garden, Chandigarh (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2007).

Le Corbusier, ‘The Master Plan’, Marg 1961, pp. 5-19.

Charles Correa, ‘The Assembly, Chandigarh’, The Architectural Review, 135 (1964).

Jane Drew, ‘Living: Sector-22’, MARG, 15 (1961), 22-25.Edwin Maxwell Fry, ‘Chandigarh: A New Town for India’, Town and Country Planning, 21 (1953), 217-21.

Norma Evenson, Chandigah (Berkeley and Los Angeles, Cal: University of California, 1966).

Norma Evenson, The Indian Metropolis (New Haven: Yale University, 1989).

Edwin Maxwell Fry, ‘Problems of Chandigarh Architecture’, MARG, 15 (1961), 20-21, 25.

Edwin Maxwell Fry, ‘Chandigarh: The Capital of the Punjab’, Journal of The Royal Institute of British Architects, 62 (1955), 87-94.

Chris Gordon, and Kist Kilian, Chandigarh: Forty Years after Le Corbusier (Amsterdam: Architectura and Natura Press, 1992).

Otto Koenigsberger, ‘New Towns in India’, Town Planning Review, 23 (1952), 95-132.

Christopher Gethin, ‘Chandigarh: A Memorial to Arrogance’, Built Environment, 2 (1973), 291-94.

Sarin Madhu, Urban Planning in the Third World: The Chandigarh Experience (London: Mansell, 1982).

Iain Jackson, and Soumyen Bandyopadhyay, ‘Authorship and Modernity in Chandigarh: The Gandhi Bhavan and the Kiran Cinema Designed by Pierre Jeanneret and Edwin Maxwell Fry’, The Journal of Architecture, 14 (2009), 687-713.

Iain Jackson, ‘Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew’s Early Housing and Neighbourhood Planning in Sector-22, Chandigarh’, Planning Perspectives, 28 (2013), 1-26.

Kiran Joshi, Documenting Chandigarh: The Indian Architecture of Pierre Jeanneret, Maxwell Fry & Jane Drew (Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing, 1999).

Ravi Kalia, Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987).

Jon Lang, M Desai, and M Desai, Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity – India 1880 – 1980 (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Jaspreet Takhar, Celebrating Chandigarh: 50 Years of the Idea (Ahmedabad: Maplin, 2002).

Ernst Scheidegger, Maristella Casciato, Cerena Nievergelt, and Stanislaus Von Moos, Chandigarh 1956: Le Corbusier, Pierren Jeanneret, Jane B. Drew, E. Maxwell Fry (Zurich: Scheidegger & Spiess, 2010).

Jaspreet Takhar, Celebrating Chandigarh: 50 Years of the Idea (Ahmedabad: Maplin, 2002).

J Tyrwhitt, ed., Patrick Geddes in India (London: Lund Humphries, 1947).

L.J Vale, Architecture, Power and National Identity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992).

Pondicherry (key texts followed by supplementary reading)
Pondicherry Key Texts:

Aurobindo, Sri [Aurobindo Ghose]. 1997a. Letters on Himself and the Ashram. Complete Works of Sri Aurobindo, vol. 35. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.

Clément, Catherine. 2007. Les Derniers Jours de la déesse. 2nd edn. Paris: Librairie Générale Française/Le Livre de Poche.

Edwards, Penny. 2010. ‘A Strategic Sanctuary: Reading l’Inde française through the Colonial Archive.’ Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 12, issue 3: 356–67.

Heehs, Peter. 2008. Lives of Sri Aurobindo. New York: Columbia University Press.

Heelas, Paul. 1996. The New Age Movement: The Celebration of the Self and the Sacralization of Modernity. Oxford: Blackwell.

Nandy, Ashis. 1983. The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Pondicherry Supplementary reading:

[no author]. 1968b. Auroville. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Society.
[no author]. 1969. Scéance commémorative de Sri Aurobindo à la Sorbonne, le 5 décembre 1955. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram Trust.
[no author]. 1974. Auroville, the First Six Years 1968–1974. Auroville: Auropublications.
[no author]. 1977. Matrimandir, August 1970–February 1977. Auroville: Auropublications.

Alfassa, Mirra. 1987b. Questions and Answers 1956. Collected Works of The Mother, vol. 8. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Society.

Alfassa, Mirra. 1987c. Questions and Answers 1957–1958. Collected Works of The Mother, vol. 9. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Society.

Alfassa, Mirra. 1987d. Some Answers from the Mother. Collected Works of The Mother, vol. 16. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Society.

Aurobindo, Sri [Aurobindo Ghose]. 1970a. Letters on Yoga. SABCL (Sri Aurobindo Birth Centenary Library), vol. 22. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.

Barbier Saint Hilaire, Philippe. 2001. Intinéraire d’un enfant du siècle: de l’École polytechnique à l’Ashram de Sri Aurobindo. Paris: Buchet-Chastel.

Brosse, Thérèse. 1984. Sri Aurobindo-Mère: Shiva–Shakti. Paris: Dervy-Livres

David, Georgette, Pondichéry: des comptoirs français à l’Inde d’aujourd’hui, Pondicherry
and Paris: Kailash, 2004, 272 pp.

Delamare, George, Désordres à Pondichéry, Pondicherry and Paris: Kailash, 1997 [1938],
252 pp.

François-Denève, Corinne, Mircea Itu, Ian H. Magedera and Kate Marsh. 2011. French Books on India: from Dupleix to Decolonization. Glasgow: University of Glasgow French and German Publications.

Hindocha, Huta D. 1999. The Story of a Soul. Pondicherry: Havyavahana Trust.

Langley, Lee, A House in Pondicherry, London: Heinemann, 1995

Patenaude, Monique. 2004. Made in Auroville. Montreal: Tryptique.

Purani, A.B. 1958. Life of Sri Aurobindo. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.

Purani, A.B. 1982. Evening Talks with Sri Aurobindo. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.

OTHER CITIES (in alphabetical order)
Spodek, H. (2011) Ahmedabad: Shock City of Twentieth-Century India. Indiana University Press: Bloomingtoon, Ind

Freitag, S. B. (1989) State and community: symbolic popular protest in Banaras’s public arenas. In Culture and Power in Banaras: Community, Performance, and Environment, 1800–1980. (Ed, S. B. Freitag) University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, pp. 203-228

Gupta, N. (1981) Delhi between two empires, 1803-1931: society, government and urban growth. Oxford University Press: Delhi
Legg, S. (2005) Sites of counter-memory: the refusal to forget and the nationalist struggle in colonial Delhi Historical Geography 33, 180-201.
Legg, S. (2007) Spaces of Colonialism: Delhi’s Urban Governmentalities. Blackwell: Oxford

William J. Glover, Making Lahore Modern: Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008).

Rosie Llewellyn-Jones, Lucknow: City of Illusion, London: Prestel, 2005

Preeti Chopra, A Joint Enterprise Indian Elites and the Making of British Bombay, Minneapolis:University of Minnesota Press, 2011

Rebecca M. Brown, “The Cemeteries and the Suburbs: Patna’s Challenges to the Colonial City in South Asia,” Journal Of Urban History 29, no. 2 (2003): 151-72.

Haynes, D. (1991) Rhetoric and ritual in colonial India: the shaping of a public culture in Surat City, 1852-1928. University of California Press: Berkeley, CA

C. General titles

The British Raj

Allen, C. (1977) Raj: A Scrapbook of British India 1877-1947 London: Andre Deutsch Limited

Graham, M. (1913) Journal of a Residence in India Edinburgh: George Ramsay and Company

Henty, G.A (1884) With Clive in India ot The Beginnings of an Empire London: Blackie

Parkes, F. (2003) Begums, Thugs & Englishmen: the journals of Fanny Parkes India: Penguin Books India. First published (1850) as Wanderings of a Pilgrim in search of the Picturesque, during four-and-twenty years in the East; with Revelations of Life in the Zenana

The colonial bungalow
Miki Desai The colonial bungalow
Anthony King, The Bungalow: the production of a global culture (Routledge 1984)

William J. Glover, “”A Feeling of Absence from Old England:” The Colonial Bungalow,” Home Cultures 1, no. 1 (2004): 61-82.

Mary Louise Pratt and ‘contact zones’ penultimate paragraph on page one.

Assemblages (via Deleuze and Guattari)
The notion of urban assemblages in the plural form offers a powerful foundation to grasp the city anew, as an object which is relentlessly being assembled at concrete sites of urban practice or, to put it differently, as a multiplicity of processes of becoming, affixing sociotechnical networks, hybrid collectivities and alternative toplogies. (Farías and Bender 2010, 2 – Farías I and Bender T eds 2010 Urban assemblages: how actor-network theory changes urban studies Routledge, London
In Stephen Legg, Assemblage/apparatus: using Deleuze and Foucault, Area
Volume 43, Issue 2, pages 128–133, June 2011

Work being done in Leiden

Indian Institute for Human Settlements (a university currently in the planning stage)

McKinsey Global Insititute: India’s Urban Awakening (includes summary, report and podcast – all focused on future economic development)

Conference at Yale in 2011

Beware that Western writing on (Indian) cities is also part of colonial dynamic (see theoretical titles above, but Geddes is an interesting case-study)

Patrick Geddes City Development, A Report to the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust (1904), Rutgers University Press.
According to Lewis Mumford, writing in introduction to Tyrwhitt’s collected reports:
“Few observers have shown more sympathy…with the religious and social practices of the Hindus than Geddes did; yet no one could have written more scathingly of Mahatma Gandhi’s attempt to conserve the past by reverting to the spinning wheel, at a moment when the fundamental poverty of the masses in India called for the most resourceful application of the machine both to agricultural and industrial life.”[26]

Jacqueline Tyrwhitt. Patrick Geddes in India. London: Lund Humphries. p. 9.
Martin Beattie, “Sir Patrick Geddes and Barra Bazaar: Competing Visions, Ambivalence and Contradiction,” The Journal of Architecture 9, no. 2 (2004): 131-50.

Mrinalini Rajagopalan From loot to trophy. The vexed history of architectural heritage in Imperial India

D. French Language Titles

  1. Hi there – I wonder if you have any suggestions for novels that could be paired with academic texts for a course on “Global Cities” — I’m doing a section on (post) colonial cities and currently have Kiran Desai’s “The Inheritance of Loss” on my list, but it maybe isn’t the best fit. Let me know if you have any suggestions!

    • cleoroberts said:

      Dear Darren,

      Apologies for the delay! I can recommend ‘Noon in Calcutta’, a collection of short stories that gives a flavour of the city
      Or Amitav Ghosh, ‘Sea of Poppies’ which focuses on the silk route and opium trade between China and India.


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